Measure for Measure has proved unusually controversial since its earliest recorded performance in 1604. Adverse critical judgements and heavily-censored performances established a deep-seated and unjustified prejudice against the play. By redressing the balance, however, we can establish the full value of so much that was unappreciated or underrated for centuries. This study deploys thorough, impartial analysis of texts and contexts (including detailed reference to the play in performance) to explore possibilities and to suggest alternative interpretations. It concludes that no play in the Shakespearian canon reflects the socio-political conundrums of the Twenty-First Century more comprehensively.